“Canadian experience” has no consistent definition, reducing the efficacy of the immigration system and leading immigrants to invest in activities with unreliable economic returns.
Comparing those who recently arrived in Canada with those who transition from temporary to permanent residency presents a significant measurement problem because the latter group’s settlement journey starts much earlier.
In assessing the economic viability of two-step immigration, we must consider that temporary residents typically have no access to settlement services funded by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada and lack the rights of a permanent resident.
Having experience in a good-quality job in Canada before becoming a permanent resident, advanced language and soft skills, and professional networks and ethnic ties help immigrants achieve economic success early on.
Canadian education, volunteering and unpaid internships, and personal networks alone don’t guarantee successful economic integration.
Hiring practices that assess a candidate’s “Canadian-ness” perpetuate discrimination against immigrants and aren’t based on work performance.
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