Three major questions tend to dominate the conversation in the Gulf region across governments, businesses, academia, and wider society. First, how does our innovation capability compare with the best in the world? Second, what changes to the innovation ecosystem could catapult the region forward—bringing new value, growth, jobs, and economic diversification to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations? And third, very timely, what is the window of opportunity to implement the necessary interventions? These are paramount and pressing questions that we aim to address in this research report.