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The Bucks Stop Here: Trends in Income Inequality Between Generations

Younger workers are making less money relative to their elders. That is true for men and women, individuals and couples, and both before and after taxes. While it’s normal for older workers to make more money than those with less experience, our research shows a growing earnings gap between younger and older workers. In the mid-1980s, the average after-tax income of Canadians between the ages of 50 and 54 was 47 per cent higher than that of 25- to 29-year-olds. In recent years, that gap has jumped to 64 per cent.


City Magnets III: Benchmarking the Attractiveness of 50 Canadian Cities

An aging population means that immigrants are critical to Canada’s future. Cities that fail to attract new people will struggle to stay prosperous, which is why we ranked 50 Canadian cities based on the features that make them attractive to newcomer populations. Six—Waterloo, Calgary, Ottawa, Richmond Hill, Vancouver, and St. John’s—distinguished themselves as grade “A” cities in our rankings.

2014 Honorary Associate

The Honorary Associate award is the Conference Board’s highest honour and is conferred annually upon individuals who have served both their organization and their country with distinction. This year, The Conference Board of Canada has named Michael H. McCain, President and Chief Executive Officer, Maple Leaf Foods Inc., as its Honorary Associate. Join us on Monday, November 3, 2014, at the Fairmont Royal York in Toronto to celebrate Michael McCain’s many achievements.

Workplace Preferences of Millennials and Gen X: Attracting and Retaining the 2020 Workforce

Although the damage done to savings by the 2008 recession has delayed the mass retirement of baby boomers, organizations will soon be facing a labour shortage and will need to rely on Millennials to fill the gaps. How, where, and with whom this future workforce wants to work will impact attraction and retention levels. Organizations that separate the true work styles and preferences of Millennials and Gen Xers from the stereotypes will improve their ability to attract and retain employees in both groups.

Health Summit: Aging, Chronic Disease, and Wellness

We all know that as we get older we become more vulnerable and tend to make more demands on the health care system. Our Health Summit 2014: Aging, Chronic Disease, and Wellness will focus on the long-term challenges facing our health care system when it comes to seniors and chronic care. These two interrelated issues represent a complex challenge to system sustainability—a challenge that will affect the health of all Canadians, now and in the future.

The Case for Coaching

Coaching is one of the fastest-growing areas within the field of leadership and organizational development. It is already recognized as an effective development tool. And in the future, we expect coaching will be used more broadly, have a wider range of applications, and be linked to the strategic goals of the organization.

CBoC Highlights

Check out our latest infographic—Toronto: Canada’s Leader for Financial Services Headquarters.

Satyamoorthy Kabilan discusses how terrorist groups, such as ISIS, use social media to spread their message.


On CBC’s “The Exchange With Amanda Lang,” David Stewart-Patterson examined the potential impact of young people making less money than the previous generation.

Calgary Mayor Naheed Nenshi shares his experiences of crisis communication and leadership during the 2013 Calgary flood.

In This Issue

  • The Bucks Stop Here: Trends in Income Inequality Between Generations
  • City Magnets III: Benchmarking the Attractiveness of 50 Canadian Cities
  • 2014 Honorary Associate
  • Workplace Preferences of Millennials and Gen X: Attracting and Retaining the 2020 Workforce
  • Health Summit: Aging, Chronic Disease, and Wellness
  • The Case for Coaching

Previous Issues

Recent Op-Eds

How to Ease Ontario’s Fiscal Squeeze
The Globe and Mail, September 24, 2014

Young, Underpaid, and Angry: The Coming Clash Over the Income Gap, September 23, 2014

If I Had $100 billion ... How to Restore Ottawa’s Fiscal Health
The Globe and Mail, September 10, 2014

To Beat Terrorists Online, Let’s Raise Our Social Media Game
The Globe and Mail, September 08, 2014

A Call to Recalibrate Corporate Values
The Globe and Mail, September 02, 2014

Latest Blogs

Shipping in a Changing Northern Climate: Where Do We Go From Here?

Jan 27, 2016
Kala Pendakur Kala Pendakur
Research Associate
Northern and Aboriginal Policy

The very climatic changes that are opening up Northern waters to exploration and shipping are the same changes that are making these activities more difficult.

Marine transportation plays a critical role in the quality of life of Canada’s Northern residents. Due to the vast distances between communities, as well as their isolation from Southern Canada, the ability to transport goods via waterways to Northerners has a direct impact on the cost of living, food security, community resilience, economic growth, safety and security, and on their ability to fully participate in the economy. Moreover, numerous economic activities and opportunities, including oil and gas exploration and development, mining, tourism, and fisheries, all rely to some degree on shipping.

However, while marine shipping is more cost-effective than air shipping, it is often hampered by a lack of port infrastructure and difficult navigation conditions. And sea and ice conditions are only getting more challenging as operators face the new realities of climate change.

The eyes of the world are on climate change. Just this past year, COP21 in Paris brought world leaders together to discuss the current and future impacts of a changing climate. As temperatures continue to warm and water conditions continue to change, a fundamental question must be asked: What is the role of individuals, organizations, and policy-makers in helping marine operators ensure efficient and safe shipping in the North?

Answering this question begins with a better understanding of the climatic changes that are occurring and their impacts on marine transportation.

A quick analysis points to several important climatic impacts. Warming temperatures have caused permafrost1 degradation, which in turn has impacted coastal infrastructure and facilities. Sea-level falls have caused navigation issues due to reduced depth under a ship’s keel, while sea-level rises have contributed to more wave action, coastal erosion, and an increase in ice movements. Out on the water, changing ice conditions combined with high winds have led to ice bunching into choke points. These are just some of the changes that operators have to deal with.

Moving forward, adaptations to vessels and marine infrastructure, as well as policy adaptations, will be key.

Companies are well aware of the dangers of shipping in the Arctic, and several organizations have carried out winter-operation risk assessments and ship-specific winterization procedures to mitigate risks. In many cases, damage to vessels can be prevented by careful route planning and operational prudence. Beyond planning, operators may have to make more active changes, such as reinforcing their ships to withstand heavy ice.

Adaptations to marine facilities will depend greatly on the unique local water conditions that communities are facing. For instance, in areas with high water levels and incidence of storm surge, or areas with high coastal erosion, it may be necessary to construct sea defence structures to limit damage. In contrast, areas with falling water levels may need to dredge harbours. This is costly; dredging operations require substantial financial resources that communities and governments may not have. An estimate of the cost to dredge a channel for Tuktoyaktuk that would allow cargo service directly via ocean vessels would exceed $100 million.2

Successful marine navigation will depend on a wide range of efforts, including a coordinated approach by federal government departments. To aid safe marine transportation, governments would need to offer services such as producing navigational charts, deploying and maintaining navigational aids, providing weather and ice information, providing ice breaking services, and surveillance and monitoring of marine traffic.

Beyond federal government support, support from organizations such as the Arctic Council, which in 2009 released the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment, will be useful moving forward.3

Northerners are well aware of the climate changes that are occurring in the North, and adaptation initiatives and research at the community level will be important in addressing these changes. The adaptation practices mentioned above are by no means comprehensive. The myriad of climatic changes occurring in the North will require numerous multi-faceted adaptation practices that are researched and implemented by various organizations.

We still have a lot of work to do to better understand the challenges and opportunities occurring in Northern waters. Moving forward, government can aid marine transporters by ensuring that Canadian waters are charted accurately, ice breaking services are available, and navigation aids (such as beacons) are in place as required. A robust transportation system and strategy in the North is an economic necessity. And while challenges associated with a changing climate are inconvenient, they are not insurmountable.

We touch on some of the economic opportunities and challenges that exist in Northern waters in our report Changing Tides: Economic Development in Canada’s Northern Marine Waters, and will be discussing this topic at the upcoming 2016 Northern Lights Conference.


1    Permafrost is characterized as ground that stays below 0°C for a minimum of two consecutive years.

2    Det’on Cho Stantec. Change and Challenge: Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the GNWT Department of Transportation (Yellowknife: Det’on Cho Stantec, 2013).

3    Arctic Council. Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report (Tromsø, Norway: Arctic Council, 2009).


MyService—The Toronto Police Service’s Journey on Transforming its Culture
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