The growing role of science, math, and technology in everyday life means science skills are important for all students, not just those aspiring to a career in the sciences. This is a significant shift from the past, when school mathematics curricula were dominated by the need to provide the foundations for the professional training of a small number of mathematicians, scientists, and engineers.1
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international assessment of the skills and knowledge of 15 year olds, coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). It assesses whether students approaching the end of compulsory education have acquired the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in society.
The science component of the PISA test gauges the extent to which students have learned fundamental scientific concepts and theories. It also measures the capacity of students to identify scientific issues, explain phenomena scientifically, and use scientific evidence as they encounter, interpret, and solve real-life problems involving science and technology. This approach reflects the reality of how globalization and computerization are changing societies and labour markets.
Basic competencies in science are generally considered essential to be able to use new technology, while high-level competencies are critical for the creation of new technology and innovation. This makes the acquisition of science skills through the core education system integral to a country’s ability to be successful in the new knowledge economy.