Cautious Optimism explores how distributed ledger technology (DLT), such as blockchain (BC) and its potential uses, can support better government digital services across various public policy issues. The briefing begins with an overview of DLT technology, namely blockchain. Subsequent sections explore BC applications in government, and examine current challenges. Findings stem from a literature review and interviews with key experts from several federal departments and provincial governments in Canada, the Canadian information technology industry and, as well, with experts from the United States, Scotland, The Netherlands, and Estonia. The briefing ends with ideas for action, mainly on the part of the Canadian federal government. Several examples of other ongoing government blockchain experiences are provided in the briefing’s annex.