Ottawa, January 17, 2013—Canada throws away more garbage per capita than any other country in the developed world. That, combined with heavy usage of energy and water, gives Canada a “C” grade and a ranking of 15th out of 17 countries in The Conference Board of Canada’s How Canada Performs—Environment ranking.
|Report Card—Environment |
|Rank ||Country ||Grade |
|1 ||France ||A |
|2 ||Norway ||A |
|3 ||Sweden ||A |
|4 ||U.K. ||A |
|5 ||Ireland ||A |
|6 ||Switzerland ||A |
|7 ||Japan ||A |
|8 ||Italy ||A |
|9 ||Austria ||A |
|10 ||Denmark ||A |
|11 ||Germany ||B |
|12 ||Finland ||B |
|13 ||Belgium ||B |
|14 ||Netherlands ||B |
|15 ||Canada ||C |
|16 ||U.S. ||D |
|17 ||Australia ||D |
Note: Data for the most recent year available used.
Source: The Conference Board of Canada.
“Our large land mass, cold climate and resource-intensive economy make us less likely to rank highly on some indicators of environmental sustainability, but many of our poor results are based on our inefficient use of our resources,” said Len Coad, Director, Director, Energy, Environment and Technology Policy. “Canada must promote economic growth without further degrading the environment. Encouraging more sustainable consumption is crucial to achieve that objective.”
A 15th place ranking, the same as in 2009, place Canada ahead of only Australia and the United States. These three countries are similar: they are three largest countries in terms of land area, and they are the most resource-intensive economies in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Canada does show some excellent environmental results. Forests are generally well-protected and well-managed. Air quality has improved modestly, energy use per person is down and water quality is still high.
But several of Canada’s dismal results are due to overconsumption. In addition to generating the most waste, Canadians’ water withdrawals are nearly double the average of the other countries and are lower only than the United States. And despite some improvement, Canadians are still the largest users of energy in the developed world.
Waste: In 2009, Canada generated 777 kilograms of municipal waste per capita—the 17 country average was 578 kg. Most of the waste goes to landfills or incinerators—of the 34 million tonnes generated in 2008, 26 million went there for disposal.
Energy: Canada’s energy use is a mixed picture. Canadian greenhouse gas emissions per capita in 2010 earned a “D” grade, likely because of increased exports of natural resources. Yet GHG emissions per capita fell by almost five per cent between 1990 and 2010. Similarly Canada ranks 17th and last for the highest level of total energy consumption, but energy intensity decreased by almost 20 per cent between 1990 and 2009. And Canada improved the share of its electricity produced by nuclear and renewable sources (mostly hydroelectric power) from 72 per cent in 2000 to almost 78 per cent in 2011.
Air quality: Canada’s performance on all four air quality indicators in this analysis improved between 1990 and 2009. Yet, compared to most other countries, Canada still emits higher levels per capita of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Water: At a glance, Canada enjoys abundant and safe water. For example, Canada earns an “A” grade for water quality and ranks 4th on this indicator. Yet, regions such as the Prairies, southern Ontario and southern Quebec have water quality concerns, due in part to municipal water discharges (still, despite upgrades, one of the largest sources of pollution in Canadian waters). Furthermore, Canada’s water withdrawals are nearly double the 16-country average, and Canadians use more than nine times the water per capita that Denmark does.
Forest management: Canada is a top performer in its forestry practices. Canada gets an “A” grade and ranks second only to Japan on use of forest resources, and earns a “B” grade for its change in forest cover between 2005 and 2010.
Biodiversity: Canada gets an “A” for the proportion of threatened species as a share of all species. Nevertheless, the number of species at risk in Canada is increasing, although federal biodiversity action plans have been prepared for the agriculture and forestry sectors. In contrast, Canada’s Marine Trophic Index declined between 2000 and 2006, so Canada gets a “D” grade and ranks last on this indicator. The Marine Trophic Index is a measure of the extent to which a country is fishing for smaller species that are further down the food chain, so it measures the overall level of depletion of fish stocks.