Fish and seafood are valuable sources of nutrients and part of a healthy diet. With the right positioning, Canada’s commercial fisheries and aquaculture sector can realize significant economic and ecological gains from growth opportunities to meet rising—largely foreign—demand. This expanding market represents growth opportunities for Canada’s fisheries and aquaculture sector, primarily through improved value-based processing, increased value of landed wild-caught fish, and augmented aquaculture production and marketing. To protect fish and seafood resources and habitats, greater investments will be needed in sustainability, conservation, rebuilding of depleted fish stocks, and reduction of waste (bycatch and bushing). This report exams the fisheries and aquaculture sector in Canada, assesses the resource supply, and examines current governance policies, practices, and legislation. It concludes with recommendations on how to improve the sector’s economic prosperity and increase its environmental sustainability.