This report is a foundational study that assesses Canada’s current approach to food policies, laws, and regulations (PLRs) and identifies areas for in-depth examination in subsequent studies that are being undertaken as part of the Centre for Food in Canada’s (CFIC) research agenda. It examines the characteristics of an “optimal” regulatory system and considers how PLRs have been developed in Canada. The report then explores how Canadian food PLRs stack up against this optimal system. The report looks at six important sets of food PLRs that provide concrete examples of the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian approach. The report’s final chapter draws conclusions and discusses the implications for CFIC’s forthcoming Canadian Food Strategy.